SPORT STUDIES FUNDAMENTAL TERMINOLOGY IN ENGLISH (2023)

3 THE CATEGORIZATION OF SPORT BRANCHES

The simplest and most used approach is viewing sports asOlympic and non-Olympic sports.People with various physical or mentalimpairments compete in Paralympicsports. There is a list of so-calledrecognised sports,which means sports recognised by the IOC. Whenfocusing on particular cultures, nations, regions or countries, we canmention nationalsports. There is an increasing number of sports thatare called extremesports.

OLYMPIC SPORTS

SPORT STUDIES FUNDAMENTAL TERMINOLOGY IN ENGLISH (1)

The Olympic sport is defined by the International OlympicCommittee (IOC) as follows:
An Olympicsport must be widely practised by men in at least 75countries and on four continents, and by women in at least 40 countriesand on three continents.

A discipline isa branch of an Olympic sport including one ormore events. For example, Aquatics is an Olympic sport comprising fourOlympic disciplines: swimming, diving, water polo, and synchronisedswimming. One of swimming eventsis 100m breaststroke.

The events programme for the2008 Summer Olympic Games held inBeijing (China) will list 28 sports (35 Olympicdisciplines), and theOlympics will stage 302 events (165 men’s events, 127women’s events, and 10 mixed events), which is one more thanin Athens 2004. Nine new events will be held (e.g. two events from thenew cycling discipline of BMX, women will compete in 3000msteeplechase, both men and women will compete in swimming marathon over10km), some former events will be removed and some replaced oralternated.

The 2006 WinterOlympics held in Turin (Italy) featured 84medal events in 15 disciplines grouped over 7 sports. Events that madeOlympic debut in Turin included Mass start biathlon, Team sprintcross-country skiing, Snowboard cross and Team pursuit speed skating.

So called demonstrationsports or events,which used to beintroduced at the Olympics in the past, have not been held at anyOlympics since 1992.

The SummerParalympic Games currently stage 20 sportsincluding four unique sports designed only for the disabled.

The WinterParalympics include 4 sports. Some rules of commonsports are modified and adjusted for the needs of athletes withdisabilities.

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THE LIST OF OLYMPIC SPORTS HELD ATTHE 2008 SUMMER OG

SPORT STUDIES FUNDAMENTAL TERMINOLOGY IN ENGLISH (2)

(the number of events to be contested in each sport isindicated in brackets)

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  • Aquatics (46): Diving (8), Swimming (34), Synchronisedswimming (2), Water polo (2)
  • Archery (4)
  • Athletics (track and field) (47)
  • Badminton (5)
  • Baseball (1)
  • Basketball (2)
  • Boxing (11)
  • Canoeing (16) (Whitewater Canoeing and Kayaking, Flat WaterCanoeing and Kayaking)
  • Cycling (18) (Road Cycling, Track Cycling, Mountain Biking,BMX Cycling)
  • Equestrian (6) (Show Jumping, Military Equestrian,Dressage)
  • Fencing (10)
  • Football (Soccer) (2)
  • Gymnastics (18) (Artistic Gymnastics, Rhythmic Gymnastics,Trampoline)
  • Handball (2)
  • Hockey (field) (2)
  • Judo (14)
  • Modern Pentathlon (2)
  • Rowing (14) (Rowing and Sculling)
  • Sailing (11)
  • Shooting (15)
  • Softball (1)
  • Table Tennis (4)
  • Taekwondo (8)
  • Tennis (4)
  • Triathlon (2)
  • Volleyball (4) (Volleyball, Beach Volleyball)
  • Weightlifting (15)
  • Wrestling (18) (Greco-Roman Wrestling)

THE LIST OF OLYMPIC SPORTS HELD ATTHE 2006 WINTER OG

SPORT STUDIES FUNDAMENTAL TERMINOLOGY IN ENGLISH (3)

15 disciplines grouped over 7 sports (Skiing, Skating, IceHockey, Bobsleigh, Luge, Curling, Snowboarding)
(the number of eventsto be contested in each discipline is indicated in brackets)

  • Alpine Skiing (10) (Slalom, Giant Slalom, Super-G, DownhillRace, Combined Event)
  • Biathlon (10)
  • Bobsleigh (3)
  • Cross-country Skiing (12)
  • Curling (2)
  • Figure Skating (4) (Men’s Singles,Women’s Singles, Pairs, Ice Dancing)
  • Freestyle Skiing (4) (Moguls, Aerials, Ski Cross)
  • Ice Hockey (2)
  • Luge (3)
  • Nordic Combined Event (3)
  • Short Track Speed Skating (8)
  • Skeleton (2)
  • Ski Jumping (3)
  • Snowboarding (6) (Half-pipe, Dual Slalom, Snowboard Cross)
  • Speed Skating (12)

SPORTS AT SUMMER PARALYMPIC GAMES

  • special sports for the disabled: Boccia, Goalball,Powerlifting, Wheelchair Rugby
  • Archery, Athletics (track and field), Cycling,Equestrian,Football 5-a-side, Football 7-a-side, Judo, Rowing, Sailing, Shooting,Swimming, Table Tennis, Volleyball (sitting), Wheelchair Basketball,Wheelchair Fencing, Wheelchair Tennis

SPORTS AT WINTER PARALYMPIC GAMES

  • Alpine Skiing (Downhill Race, Slalom, Giant Slalom,Super-G)
  • Ice Sledge Hockey
  • Nordic Skiing (Cross-country Skiing, Biathlon)
  • Wheelchair Curling

RECOGNIZED SPORTS

In order to promote the Olympic Movement, the InternationalOlympic Committee (IOC) may recognise as International SportsFederations (IFS) international non-governmental organisationsadministering one or several sports at world level and encompassingorganisations administering such sports at national level. The currentlist includes:
Air Sports, Bandy, Billiard Sports, Boules, Bowling, Bridge, Chess,Dance Sport, Golf, Karate, Korfball, Life Saving, Motorcycle Racing,Mountaineering and Climbing, Netball, Orienteering, Pelote Basque,Polo, Power-boating, Racquetball, Roller Sports, Rugby, Squash,Surfing, Sumo, Tug of War, Underwater Sports, Water Skiing, Wushu.

EXTREME SPORTS

An extremesport(also called actionsport, adventuresport,or adventuroussport) is any sport featuring speed, height, danger, ahigh level of physical exertion, highly specialized gear, orspectacular stunts. “True” extreme sports arereferred to as leisure or recreation activities where the most likelyoutcome of a mismanaged accident or mistake is death. Anothercharacteristic of activities so labelled is the fact that they tend tobe individual rather than team sports. Extreme sports can include bothcompetitive and non-competitive activities.

Extreme sports include e.g. aggressive skating, BMXfreestyle,bodyboarding, bossaball, bouldering, buildering, bungee jumping,canyoning, cave diving, drag racing, extreme skiing (Flying Kilometer,Ski Alpinism), freediving, freestyle motocross, hang gliding, iceclimbing, mountain biking, kite surfing, mountaineering, parachuting,rally, rock climbing, scuba diving, skateboarding, skydiving, slamball,spearfishing, street luge, stunt pogo, wakeboarding, water skiing,whitewater rafting, zorbing, etc.

The event called theX Games is an annual multi-sport eventwith a focus on action sports. Competitors perform in many differentcategories and styles, trying to win medals as well as prize money. Thecompetitions often feature never-before-seen tricks. There is also theX Fest – ultimate action sports and musicfestival, and otherevents.

NATIONAL SPORTS

A nationalsport is a sport or game that is considered to be apopularly intrinsic part of the culture of a country or nation. InAmerican English the term “national pastime” isoften used. Although there are no official parameters towards definingwhat a national sport is, there are some general characteristics thatmost national sports share:

  • The rulesand objectives of the sport or game are known infairly great detail in the country or nation
  • The game or sport is widelyplayed or watched in thecountry or nation

In some countries, a sport or game can become the officialnational sport by mandateof the Government, such as with Canada andlacrosse in 1995. In other countries, where a sport or game has a verylong history ortradition,and often its origin as well, such as withbaseball in the USA or sumo wrestling in Japan, the sport or game isoften considered a de facto official national sport (pastime).

Examplesof national sports in English speaking countriesand in other countries

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United Kingdomof Great Britain and Northern Ireland: InEnglandfootball is the most popular sport followed by cricket andrugby. In Scotlandthe native sport is shinty, but football attractsmuch larger crowds, Scotland was the birthplace of golf and curling aswell. In Walesit is traditionally rugby union, but football is playedby more people and attracts much higher attendances.

United StatesofAmerica: baseball has historically beenconsidered America’s national pastime and a significantaspect of American culture. However, American football currently enjoysgreater popularity nationwide than baseball, while basketball is playedby a lot of people.

Canada:lacrosse and ice hockey are the official nationalsports. Among other very popular sports there is basketball, baseball,golf, tennis, female soccer, or curling.

Australia:Cricket is the traditional summer sport. Footballand rugby are the most popular winter sports in different parts of thecountry.

New Zealand:rugby union is most widely performed and mostclosely linked to national pride, netball is a very popular femalesport, cricket is the national summer sport, yachting and sailing arealso popular.

Czech Republic:ice hockey and football (soccer) areconsidered national sports, football tennis originated in the Czechland, hiking, canoe touring, cycling and skiing are very popularpastimes.

Ireland:soccer, golf, India:field hockey, cricket, Japan:sumo wrestling, karate, judo, Belgium:cycling, Ethiopiaand Kenya:athletics, Argentinaand Brazil:soccer, Spain:soccer, bullfighting,the Netherlands:speed skating, cycling, China:table tennis, Finland:ice hockey, ski jumping, Norway:skiing, Austria:Alpine skiing,Norway:cross-country skiing, France:soccer, pétanque,Hawaii:surfing, windsurfing, Alaska:dog-sledging, etc.

National sport number one in majority of countries worldwideis football (soccer).

SPORT BRANCHES

Different sports can be grouped according to the use ofsimilar physical activity, technique, equipment, environment or sportfacility, highly specialized gear, etc.

Track andFieldAthletics:

  • Track events: sprints, middle-distance runs,long-distance runs, relays, hurdles, steeplechase
  • Field events: throwing events (javelin throw, discusthrow, hammer throw, shot put),jumping events (long jump, high jump, triple jump, pole vault)
  • Road events: Marathon, walks
  • Combined events: decathlon, heptathlon

Gymnastics:general gymnastics, artistic gymnastics(apparatus gymnastics), rhythmicgymnastics, acrobatics, trampoline

Games:

  • Ball games (e.g. football, handball, rugby, basketball,volleyball)
  • Goal games (e.g. football, handball, basketball, hockey,ice hockey)
  • Racquet games (e.g. tennis, table tennis, badminton,squash, baseball, softball, golf)

Aquatics:swimming, diving, synchronised swimming, waterpolo

Water sports:

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  • Canoeing and kayaking (whitewater events and flatwater events), rafting
  • Surfing, windsurfing, sailing and yachting
  • Rowing and sculling

Cycling sports:road cycling, track cycling,cyclo-cross, mountain biking, cyclo-trial, BMX, indoor cycling(artistic cycling, cycleball)

Ski sports:Alpine skiing, Nordic skiing (cross-countryskiing, ski jumping, biathlon, Nordic combined), Freestyle skiing,Snowboarding

Sports on theice:figure skating, speed skating, shorttrack, ice hockey, curling, bobsleigh, luge, skeleton

Technicalsports:

  • Air sports: parachuting, paragliding, hang gliding,aerobatics
  • Motor racing, motorcycle racing, rally, motor-cross,
  • Scuba diving, water skiing, power-boating
  • Shooting, archery

Combat sportsand Martial Arts: wrestling, boxing, judo,karate, taekwondo, kung fu, aikido, fencing, sumo

Outdoor sports:skiing, snowboarding, cycling, canoeing,rafting, windsurfing, climbing, orienteering, hiking

Equestrian:horse racing/ the turf, steeplechase,chariot races, show jumping, dressage, military

Combined sports:Modern Pentathlon (shooting, fencing,swimming, show jumping, cross-country run), Triathlon (swimming,cycling, cross-country run),Biathlon (cross-country skiing, shooting), Nordic Combined(cross-country skiing, ski jumping), etc.

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READING (Authentic text)

ACTIVEAEROBICS, SPORTS, AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES

Active aerobics, sports, and recreational activities arephysical activity categories at the second level of the physicalactivity pyramid. They are effective in promoting health benefits, aswell as developing fitness and enhancing performance.

  • ActiveAerobics: Physical activities of enough intensity toproduce improvements in cardiovascular fitness. They are more intensethan aerobic lifestyle activities.
  • ActiveRecreational Activities: Activities done duringleisure time that do not meet the characteristics of sports. Many typesof active aerobics are recreational activities.
  • Sports:Typically considered to be competitive physicalactivities that have an organized set of rules along with winners andlosers.

SPORT STUDIES FUNDAMENTAL TERMINOLOGY IN ENGLISH (4)

Active aerobicsare placed at the second level of the physicalactivity pyramid because, next to lifestyle physical activities, theyare among the most popular activities among adults. They are morevigorous than lifestyle physical activities, at the base of thepyramid, and this is why they are generally not performed as frequentlyas lifestyle physical activities. Aerobic activities, such as walking,swimming, exercising with machines, cycling and jogging, are among thetop fifteen participation activities in the United States. For many ofthe aerobic activities, the ranks for males and females are quitesimilar. There are some differences, however. Aerobic exercise (dance)is sixth for females but not ranked for males, and golf is sixth formales but not ranked for females.

Activerecreational activities and sports done at moderate tovigorous intensity are included in the second level of the pyramid.Experts classify activities such as hiking, boating, fishing, horsebackriding, and other outdoor activities as recreational. Recreationalactivities performed in the target zone for building cardiovascularfitness are considered to be active recreational activities and areappropriately included in the second level of the pyramid. Camping isan example and is among the top fifteen participation activities. It isequally popular among males and females. Other examples of popularactive recreational activities are backpacking, kayaking, and canoeing.

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Active sportscan also be included in level 2 of the pyramidbecause they are vigorous. Basketball is the only active sport in thetop fifteen participation activities. It is typically anaerobic andintermittent. Other aerobic sports include racquetball, tennis, soccer,and hockey. When done consistently with the FIT formula forcardiovascular fitness, these sports can provide benefits similar tothose of active aerobics. Swimming and cycling are popular activitiesthat can be considered sports. However, most people do these activitiesnoncompetitively, so they are considered as active aerobics in thisbook.

Sports such as golf, bowling, and billiards/pool are aerobicbut are light to moderate in intensity. For this reason, they areclassified as lifestyle physical activities.

Table 1: MostPopular Participation Activities
(Source: National Sporting Goods Association)

Activity Rank Male Female
Walking 1 2 1
Swimming 2 3 2
Camping 3 4 4
Fishing 4 1 10
Exercising withmachines 5 8 3
Bowling 6 7 5
Cycling 7 5 7
Billiards/Pool 8 9 8
Basketball 9 10 14
Golf 10 6 -
Hiking 11 13 9
Jogging 12 14 11
Aerobics (dance) 13 - 6
Boating 14 15 12
Resistance training 15 12 15
Hunting - 11 -
Rollerblading - - 13

Reference:

CORBIN, CH., CORBIN, W., WELK, G.,WELK,K.: Concepts of Physical Fitness. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies,2004. ISBN 0-07-284374-8

Listeningcomprehension

Olympic Games


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Questions:

  1. Who could compete at the Olympics?
  2. What about the women? Did they take part at the ancientOlympic Games?
  3. How were the athletes trained?
  4. What prizes did Olympic victors get?
  5. Were there any penalties for cheating?
  6. Where did the marathon come from?
  7. What does the Olympic spirit mean today?

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VOCABULARY

apparatusnářadí
adjustpřizpůsobit, seřídit
aerialsakrobatické skoky na lyžích (disciplina)
aerobaticsletecká akrobacie
air sportsletecké sporty
approachpřístup; rozběh
aquaticsplavecké sporty
archerylukostřelba
artistic cyclingkrasojízda
bobsleighboby
bocciasportpro postižené – obdoba hryPetángue
canoetouring vodní turistika
chariot races závodyklusáků
climbinglezení
combat sportsúpolové sporty
combatboj,zápas
cross-countryskiing běh na lyžích
crowddiváci, dav
cycleballkolová (sport)
disabilitypostižení
diving 1skoky do vody, 2potápění
dog-sledgingpsí spřežení (závody)
downhill racezávod ve sjezdu (na lyžích)
dressagedrezura
equestrianjezdectví
event 1 událost,2závod, disciplina
exertionvynaložení sil, úsilí
feature srys, vuvádět,hrát důležitou roli
fencingšerm
figure skatingkrasobruslení
flat water canoeing rychlostníkanoistika
focus onzaměřit se na
football tennisnohejbal
gearvýstroj, výzbroj, vybavení,potřeby
giant slalomobří slalom
goalballhrapro nevidomé sportovce
half-pipeUrampa (snowboardová disciplina)
handballházená
hang-glidinglétání na rogalovémkřídle
horse racing dostihy
hurdlespřekážky (v atletice)
ice dancingtance na ledě
ice sledge hockeylední hokej pro postiženésedící na spec. saních
impairmentpostižení, defekt
indoor cycling sálovácyklistika
life savingzáchranářství
luge, skeletonsaně (olympijské discipliny)
militaryvojenský; jezdecká disciplina
mogulsjízda v boulích (disciplinaakrobatického lyžování))
mountaineeringhorolezectví
orienteeringorientační běh
outcomevýstup, výsledek
pole vaultskok o tyči
power-boatingzávody motorových člunů
powerliftingvzpírání v leže propostižené
prize moneycena ve formě peněz
pursuitstíhací závod
recogniseuznat
relayštafeta
road cyclingsilniční cyklistika
rowingveslování
sailingjachtink
scuba divingpřístrojovépotápění
scullingskulérské veslování
shootingstřelba
shot putvrhkoulí
show jumpingparkůr
sled, sledgesaně
speed skatingrychlobruslení
stage setapa, vuvádět
steeplechaseběh přes překážky (v atletice a vjezdectví)
track cyclingdráhová cyklistika
turfdostihy
stuntakrobatický prvek, trik
synchronised swimmingakvabely; synchronisovanéplavání
underwater sportssporty pod vodou
weightliftingvzpírání
wheelchairvozíček (pro postižené)
whitewater canoeingkanoistika na divoké vodě
wrestlingzápas (sport)


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