The State of the World’s Forests 2020 (2023)


The State of the World’s Forests 2020 (2)

The State of the World’s Forests 2020 (3)

The State of the World’s Forests 2020 (4)

The State of the World’s Forests 2020 (5)

What is forest biological diversity?

Forest biological diversity refers to all life forms found within forested areas and the ecological roles they perform.

It encompasses not just trees, but the multitude of plants, animals and microorganisms that inhabit forest areas - and their associated genetic diversity.

Forest biological diversity can be considered at different levels, including ecosystem, landscape, species, population and genetic.

Complex interactions can occur within and between these levels. This complexity allows organisms to adapt to continually changing environmental conditions and to maintain ecosystem functions.

Forest ecosystems are a critical component of the world’s biodiversity as many forests are more biodiverse than other ecosystems.

Forests cover 31 percent of the global land area. Approximately half the forest area is relatively intact, and more than one-third is primary forest (i.e. naturally regenerated forests of native species, where there are no visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed).

(Video) Forests for Nature: The State of the World’s Forests 2020

The total forest area is 4.06 billion hectares, or approximately 5 000m2 (or 50 x 100m) per person, but forests are not equally distributed around the globe.

More than half of the world’s forests are found in only five countries (the Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of America and China) and two-thirds (66 percent) of forests are found in ten countries.

linkFIGURE 1

Global distribution of forests showing the ten countries with the largest forest area, 2020 (million hectares and % of world’s forest)

Deforestation and forest degradation continue to take place at alarming rates, which contributes significantly to the ongoing loss of biodiversity.

Since 1990, it is estimated that 420 million hectares of forest have been lost through conversion to other land uses, although the rate of deforestation has decreased over the past three decades.

Between 2015 and 2020, the rate of deforestation was estimated at 10 million hectares per year, down from 16 million hectares per year in the 1990s. The area of primary forest worldwide has decreased by over 80 million hectares since 1990.

Agricultural expansion continues to be the main driver of deforestation and forest degradation and the associated loss of forest biodiversity. Large-scale commercial agriculture (primarily cattle ranching and cultivation of soya bean and oil palm) accounted for 40 percent of tropical deforestation between 2000 and 2010, and local subsistence agriculture for another 33 percent.

It is not only the trees that make a forest, but the many different species of plants and animals that reside in the soil, understorey and canopy. Estimates of the total number of species on Earth range from 3 million to 100 million (May, 2010).

Although it is widely reported that forests harbour 80 percent of terrestrial plants and animals, such a precise estimate is unlikely to be accurate given the changing state of knowledge of planetary biodiversity.

While trees are the defining component of forests and their diversity can give an indication of overall diversity, there are many other ways to determine the biodiversity significance of forests.

Forest species diversity: Trees


The GlobalTreeSearch database reports the existence of 60,082 tree species.


Nearly half of all tree species (45 percent) are members of just ten families.


Nearly 58 percent of all tree species are single-country endemics.

(Video) The State of the World’s Forests 2022 – A Tree Talk by Ewald Rametsteiner (full version)

As of December 2019, a total of 20 334 tree species had been included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN, 2019a), of which 8 056 were assessed as globally threatened (Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable).

More than 1 400 tree species are assessed as critically endangered and in urgent need of conservation action.

linkFIGURE 17

Ten countries with the most tree species

SOURCE: Beech et al., 2017.

Forest species diversity: Other forest plants, animals, and fungi


About 391 000 species of vascular plants are known to science of which about 94 percent are flowering plants. Of these, 21 percent are likely threatened by extinction (Willis, 2017). Some 60 percent of the total are found in tropical forests (Burley, 2002).


Some 144 000 species of fungi have been named and classified so far. However, it is estimated that the vast majority (over 93 percent) of fungal species are currently unknown to science, indicating that the total number of fungal species on Earth is somewhere between 2.2 and 3.8 million (Willis, 2018).

Vertebrate species

Close to 70 000 vertebrate species are known and described (IUCN, 2019a). Of these, forests provide habitats for almost 5 000 amphibian species (80 percent of all known species), close to 7 500 bird species (75 percent of all birds) and more than 3 700 different mammals (68 percent of all species) (Vié, Hilton-Taylor and Stuart, 2009).

Invertebrate species

Some 1.3 million species of invertebrates have been described. However, many more exist, with some estimates ranging from 5 million to 10 million species (Ødegaard, 2000). Most are insects, and the vast majority live in forests.

The interconnected roles of forest plants, animals, and fungi

Soil microbes, forest-dependent pollinators (insects, bats, birds and some mammals), and saproxylic beetles play very important parts in maintaining the biodiversity and ecosystem functions of forests.

Similarly, mammals, birds and other organisms can play major roles in forest ecosystem structure including on the distribution patterns of trees through their direct roles in seed dispersal, seed predation and herbivory, and indirectly through predation on such ecological architects (Beck, 2008).

Along tropical coasts, mangroves provide breeding grounds and nurseries for numerous species of fish and shellfish and help trap sediments that might otherwise adversely affect seagrass beds and coral reefs – the habitats of a myriad of marine species.

Want a more detailed look into forest species and genetic diversity? Download the full 2020 State of the World’s Forests report.

Much of human society today has at least some interaction with forests and the biodiversity they contain and all people benefit from the functions provided by components of this biodiversity in the carbon, water and nutrient cycles and through the links with food production.

Let’s examine the benefits that people derive from forests in terms of livelihoods, food security and human health.

Benefits to lives and livelihoods

In both low- and high-income countries and in all climatic zones, communities that live within forests rely the most directly on forest biodiversity for their lives and livelihoods, using products derived from forest resources for food, fodder, shelter, energy, medicine and income generation.

86 million

Forests provide more than 86 million green jobs and support the livelihoods of many more.

880 million

An estimated 880 million people spend part of their time collecting fuelwood or producing charcoal.


Of the people living in extreme poverty, over 90 percent are dependent on forests for at least part of their livelihoods.

(Video) What Happened to the World’s Forests in 2021?

Rural people often participate in the value chains of forest biodiversity, for example by collecting wood and non-wood products from nearby forests for personal use or sale, or engaging in forest-product industries or value addition.

Non-consumptive uses of forest biodiversity, such as recreation and tourism, are also a growing part of rural cash economies. Each year an estimated 8 billion visits are made to protected areas, many of which are forest covered.

Indigenous peoples depend to a high degree on forest biodiversity for their livelihoods, although this relation is in flux as their linkages with national and global monetary economies grow. Areas managed by indigenous peoples (approximately 28 percent of the world’s land surface) include some of the most ecologically intact forests and many hotspots of biodiversity.

Want a more detailed look into people, forests, and biodiversity? Download the full 2020 State of the World’s Forests report.

There are ways to manage the world’s forest ecosystems that will ensure the conservation and sustainable use of their biodiversity.

Creation of protected areas has historically been the forest governance instrument most often adopted to pursue biodiversity objectives. This approach has achieved positive results in terms of conserving species and establishing barriers to the progress of deforestation.

Natural reserves alone are not sufficient to conserve biodiversity. They are usually too small, create barriers to species migration and are vulnerable to factors such as climate change. Additionally, protected areas contain only a fraction of existing forest biodiversity.

This means that there is a need to look beyond protected areas and to mainstream biodiversity conservation into forest management practices.

Forests in protected areas

Globally, 18 percent of the world’s forest area, or more than 700 million hectares fall within legally established protected areas such as national parks, conservation areas and game reserves (IUCN categories I-IV).

The largest share of forest in protected areas is found in South America (31 percent) and the lowest in Europe (5 percent).*

Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 (to protect at least 17 percent of terrestrial area by 2020) has thus been exceeded for forest ecosystems as a whole. However, these areas are not yet fully representative of the diversity of forest ecosystems.

*According to the regional breakdown used in FAO, 2020, Europe includes the Russian Federation.

linkFIGURE 39

Increase in forest area within protected areas by forest type, 1992–2015 (Million hectares)

  • Tree cover flooded
  • Mosaic tree and shrub
  • Mixed tree cover
  • Tree cover broadleaved deciduous
  • Tree cover needleleaved deciduous
  • Tree cover broadleaved evergreen
  • Tree cover needleleaved evergreen

SOURCE: Study prepared by UNEP-WCMC for this publication.

(Video) State of the World’s Forests 2016 (SOFO2016)

A study conducted for SOFO 2020 by the UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre on trends in protected forest area by global ecological zones between 1992 and 2015 found that more than 30 percent of tropical rainforests, subtropical dry forests and temperate oceanic forests were within legally protected areas (IUCN categories I-VI) in 2015.

Subtropical humid forest, temperate steppe and boreal coniferous forest should be given priority in future decisions to establish new protected areas since less than 10 percent of these forests are currently protected.

Areas with high values for both biodiversity significance and intactness, for example the northern Andes and Central America, southeastern Brazil, parts of the Congo Basin, southern Japan, the Himalayas and various parts of Southeast Asia and New Guinea, should likewise be given high priority.

Limited progress has been made to date on classifying specific forest areas as other effective area-based conservation measures, but guidance on this category is being developed and it has significant potential for forests.

Want a more detailed look into forest conservation and sustainable use? Download the full 2020 State of the World’s Forests report.

Current negative trends in biodiversity and ecosystems will undermine progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal. Transformational change is needed in the way we manage our forests and their biodiversity, produce and consume our food and interact with nature.

It is imperative that we decouple environmental degradation and unsustainable resource use from economic growth and associated production and consumption patterns.

Let’s explore a few ways that can lead us towards balanced solutions.

The State of the World’s Forests 2020 (6)

Conservation and sustainable management

The conservation and sustainable management of forests within an integrated landscape approach is key to the conservation of the world’s biodiversity and to food security and well-being of the world’s people.

A realistic balance between conservation goals and local needs and demands for resources that support livelihoods and well-being must be struck.

This requires effective governance; integrated policies for interrelated issues; land-tenure security; respect for the rights and knowledge of local communities and indigenous peoples; and enhanced capacity for monitoring of biodiversity outcomes. It also requires innovative financing modalities.

The State of the World’s Forests 2020 (7)

Food system transformation

Agricultural expansion is the main driver of deforestation and the associated loss of forest biodiversity. In order to halt such loss, we need to transform our food systems.

The biggest transformational change is needed in the way in which we produce and consume food. We must move away from the current situation where the demand for food is resulting inappropriate agricultural practices that drive large-scale conversion of forests to agricultural production and the loss of forest-related biodiversity.

Adopting agroforestry and agroecological production practices, restoring the productivity of degraded agricultural lands, adopting healthier diets and reducing food loss and waste are all actions that urgently need to be scaled up.

Agri-businesses should meet their commitments to deforestation-free commodity chains and companies that have not made zero deforestation commitments should do so. Commodity investors should adopt business models that are environmentally and socially responsible. These actions will, in many cases, require a revision of current policies and financial incentives.

The State of the World’s Forests 2020 (8)

Restoring biodiversity through forest restoration

Forest restoration, when implemented appropriately, helps restore habitats and ecosystems, create jobs and income and is an effective nature-based solution to climate change. While 61 countries have, together, pledged to restore 170 million hectares of degraded forest lands under the Bonn Challenge progress to date is slow. The United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration 2021–2030, announced in March 2019 aims to scale up action.

Working together for change

Critical to the transformations outlined above are effective governance, policy alignment between sectors and administrative levels, land-tenure security, respect for the rights and knowledge of local communities and indigenous peoples, enhanced capacity for monitoring of biodiversity outcomes, and innovative financing modalities.

Ultimately, we need to foster a new relationship with nature, and we can achieve that together.


What is the state of the world's forests? ›

The 2022 edition of The State of the World's Forests explores the potential of three forest pathways for achieving green recovery and tackling environmental crises, including climate change and biodiversity loss against the backdrop of the Glasgow Leaders' Declaration on Forests and Land Use and the pledge of 140 ...

Which country has the most deforestation 2022? ›

According to the FAO, Nigeria has the world's highest deforestation rate of primary forests. It has lost more than half of its primary forest in the last five years.

Which country has the most trees 2020? ›

1. Russia. Russia isn't only the biggest country by volume but it also has the largest number of trees.

Which country contains more than 25% of the world's forests? ›

Russia is home to the largest area of forest – 815 million hectares. Brazil, the United States, Canada, China, Australia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo also have a largest forest area – more than 100 million hectares each.

What state is number 1 in forestry? ›

1. Maine. Maine, the northernmost state of the contiguous United States, is home to about 17.7 million acres of forest. This means about 89.5% of the state is forested.

WHO released the State of World forest Report? ›

The State of the World's Forests (SOFO) report is released bi-annually by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation. It is widely regarded as one of the biggest stock takes on the forest ecosystem.

Is Amazon still burning 2022? ›

This uptick in deforestation has been accompanied by increases in fires recorded: From January to August 2022, there was a 16.7% increase in fire hotspots in the Amazon compared to the same time period in 2021 – the highest rate since 2019.

How much of the world's forest is left? ›

10,000 years ago 57% of the world's habitable land was covered by forest. That's 6 billion hectares. Today, only 4 billion hectares are left.

What percent of the world is forest in 2022? ›

Forests cover 4.06 billion ha (31%) of the earth's geographical area.

Which country is rich in trees? ›

As of 2021, Brazil leads the world in tree species count at 8,847. The country has rich biodiverse areas such as the Amazon rainforests. The American continent has the most countries rich in tree biodiversity, such as, Brazil , Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, and Ecuador.

Which is the largest forest in world? ›

The Amazon is the world's largest rainforest. It's home to more than 30 million people and one in ten known species on Earth.

Which country cut most trees? ›

Highest average annual deforestation of primary forests, 2000-2005, by area. Tropical countries
4Papua New Guinea-250,200
35 more rows
16 Nov 2005

Which country has 60% of forest? ›

Russia has over 8 million km2 of forest area in total. 49% of land area of Russia is covered by forests. The total forest area of Russia is bigger than Australia. Brazil with 61.9% of its total Land covered by forests, has 5.1 million km2 of forests.

Which country has the most trees 2022? ›

Brazil is home to the Amazon, the world's biggest forest. There are about 302 billion trees in the country, but they are in jeopardy!

Where is the world's oldest forest? ›

Scientists have discovered the world's oldest forest in an abandoned quarry near Cairo, New York. The 385-million-year-old rocks contain the fossilized woody roots of dozens of ancient trees.

What state has most forest? ›

List by state, district, or territory
RankState, district or territoryPercent forest (2016)
2New Hampshire84.32%
3American Samoa80.84%
4Northern Mariana Islands80.37%
53 more rows

Which state has most national forest? ›

Alaska has the most national forest land, with 21.9 million acres (8.9 million ha), followed by California (20.8 million acres, 8.4 million ha) and Idaho (20.4 million acres, 8.3 million ha).

Which state has the highest population of forest? ›

Share of forest cover India 2021, by leading state

In 2021, Lakshadweep had the highest percentage of forest cover with respect to total geographical area at over 90 percent. Among the leading ten states with the most dense trees and forest cover, majority belonged to the Northeast of India.

What is the percentage of forest cover in India in 2022? ›

The total forest cover in India (2022) is 7,13,789 square kilometers which is 21.71% of the total geographical area. India has added 1,540 sq km of forest cover from 2019 to 2021.

What is the rate of deforestation in 2022? ›

According to data from Brazil's national space research institute, forest clearing in the Amazon through the first two months of 2022 has amounted to 430 square kilometers (166 square miles), more than twice the average over the past ten years.

How many trees are there in the world in 2022? ›

In a time when the world is experiencing the devastating effects of global warming and deforestation, trees have left has never been more relevant. Globally, there are estimated to be 3.04 trillion trees. This is according to a study published in the journal Nature.

Is there a lost city in the Amazon? ›

Perched in a helicopter some 650 feet up, scientists used light-based remote sensing technology (lidar) to digitally deforest the canopy and identify the ancient ruins of a vast urban settlement around Llanos de Mojos in the Bolivian Amazon that was abandoned some 600 years ago.

What will happen if the Amazon is completely destroyed? ›

Burning away the Amazon would condemn millions of living species to extinction and destroy their habitats. Many of these plants, animals, and other forms of life haven't even been identified by science yet.

What will happen to the Amazon in 50 years? ›

Large scale ecosystems the size of the Amazon forests could collapse within 50 years and the Caribbean coral reefs in just 15 years, according to new research published in Nature Communications journal this week.

How long will our forests last? ›

With the current rate of deforestation, the world's rainforests will be gone by 2100. The rainforest is home to more than half of all species on Earth.

Is deforestation still a problem in 2022? ›

In the first half of this year, deforestation claimed roughly 1,500 square miles of the Amazon rainforest, an area five times the size of New York City and the greatest loss since at least 2016, according to the Brazilian Space Agency.

How much forest is lost every minute? ›

46-58 thousand. Square miles of forest are lost every year. That's equivalent to 48 football fields every minute.

How much forest is in the world? ›

The total forest area is 4.06 billion hectares, or approximately 5 000m2 (or 50 x 100m) per person, but forests are not equally distributed around the globe.

Which country has most forest percentage? ›

As of 2019, approximately 31% of the earth's land is forest.
Most Forested Countries In The World.
RankCountryForest area (% of land area)
2Federated States of Micronesia91.9
144 more rows
10 Sept 2019

Which state has the largest forest cover in India 2022? ›

Top three states showing increase in forest cover are Andhra Pradesh (647 sq km) followed by Telangana (632 sq km) and Odisha (537 sq km). Area-wise Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover in the country followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Maharashtra.

Which country is rich in land? ›

Qatar, a major oil-exporting world center, is the world's third richest country. The resource-rich land with the world's biggest economy, the United States ranks 8th on the list.
  • Luxembourg. Luxembourg. ...
  • Singapore. Singapore. ...
  • Ireland. Dublin, Ireland. ...
  • Qatar. Doha, Qatar. ...
  • Switzerland. ...
  • United Arab Emirates. ...
  • Norway. ...
  • United States.
14 Sept 2022

How old is the oldest tree? ›

The story: In eastern California, a Great Basin bristlecone pine known as Methuselah has long been considered Earth's oldest living thing. According to tree-ring data, it is 4,853 years old — meaning that Methuselah was well established by time ancient Egyptians built the pyramids at Giza.

Which is the smallest forest? ›

The Rainforest Foundation UK

DYK... the smallest rainforest in the world is Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve – located in the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It might be only 25 acres but it is home to native wildlife like monkeys, lizards, pythons, and - possibly the most exotic of all animals - squirrels!

Which is the 2nd largest forest in the world? ›

The Amazon rainforest in Brazil

Brazil has the second largest forest area in the world after Russia, with total forest areas in the South American country amounting to approximately 497 million hectares in 2020.

Which country planted a billion trees? ›


Which country banned tree cutting? ›

This isn't the first time that Norway has put into practice “speaking for the trees.” The act of banning deforestation from the supply chain only continues the country's long-standing history of protecting the world's vital forests.

Does China cut trees? ›

Read more here. From 2001 to 2021, China lost 10.9Mha of tree cover, equivalent to a 6.7% decrease in tree cover since 2000, and 4.63Gt of CO₂e emissions.

Which country is famous for forest? ›

Forest Area by Country
#Countryforest Area (hectares)
4United States310,645,000
94 more rows

Which country has the least forests? ›

Monaco, the most densely populated country (21,158 people per square kilometers), has 0% forest cover. Nauru also has no forest cover at all. However, Kiribati and Maldives have 2% and 3% forest cover.

Which continent has the largest forest? ›

Continents Of The World By Forest Cover
RankContinentForest cover (in million hectares)
2South America842
3North And Central America751
2 more rows
23 Oct 2017

Which country has most beautiful trees? ›

Get closer to nature with our round up of the most beautiful forests in the world.
  • 1) Monteverde Cloud Forest, Costa Rica. ...
  • 2) Daintree Rainforest, Australia. ...
  • 3) Amazon Rainforest, Latin America. ...
  • 4) Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda. ...
  • 5) Arashiyama Bamboo Grove, Japan. ...
  • 6) Trossachs National Park, Scotland.

Which trees release more oxygen? ›

Which trees give off the most oxygen?
  • Pines are at the bottom of the list in terms of oxygen release because they have a low Leaf Area Index.
  • Oak and aspen are intermediate in terms of oxygen release.
  • Douglas-fir, spruce, true fir, beech, and maple are toward the top of the list for oxygen release.

Who planted more than 38000 trees in 26 years? ›

M Yoganathan, a bus conductor from Coimbatore, has planted more than 38,000 trees in 28 years.

What was the first forest? ›

The planet's oldest forest was discovered in Cairo, New York in 2019. Scientists recognized a fossil record of the planet's oldest forest in an abandoned quarry in Cairo, New York. The forest is believed to be 385 million years old, which is 2-3 million years older than what was previously thought to be the oldest.

What is the youngest forest in the world? ›

Perhaps, in consideration of the scientific evidence, Royal Belum should rebrand itself as the World's Youngest Rainforest and thereby introduce its visitors to the complexity of Malaysia's recent palaeoclimatic and biological heritage.

What island has no forest? ›

Iceland Deforestation – An Almost Treeless Land

It did not take the Viking settlers who came to Iceland very long to make good use of the resources they discovered in their new homeland.

Is the world gaining or losing forests? ›

Globally we deforest around ten million hectares of forest every year. That's an area the size of Portugal every year. Around half of this deforestation is offset by regrowing forests, so overall we lose around five million hectares each year. Nearly all – 95% – of this deforestation occurs in the tropics.

Are forests growing or shrinking? ›

In Alaska, spruce are taking over from moss and lichen. Globally, recent research indicates forests are expanding along two-thirds of Earth's 12,000-kilometer-long northern tree line—the point where forests give way to tundra—while receding along just 1% (see map, below). Forest gains are not confined to the far north.

Can forests save the world? ›

Forests are also key in the battle against climate change. They are essential stores of the carbon dioxide that is warming the planet, soaking up 30 percent of all emissions from fossil fuels and industry. “We have more and more evidence on action on the ground being effective,” Boccucci said.

Are there enough trees in the world? ›

In terms of numbers, the world total may fall to around 2 trillion trees – which may seem adequate, but it's a big reason to worry for future generations. On the brighter side, the total number of trees can also increase by 2050, with the right policies in place.

How much of the world is forest 2022? ›

Forests cover 31% of Earth's land surface (approximately 4.06 billion ha), but that area is shrinking — we lost 420 million hectares our forests to deforestation between 1990-2020 alone.

What is the percentage of forest in the world in 2022? ›

The 420 mha of forests have been lost between 1990 and 2020, due to deforestation, though forests cover 4.06 billion ha (31 per cent) of the earth's geographical area, the report said.

Why forests are dying? ›

Climate change

Changes in mean annual temperature and drought are major contributing factors to forest dieback. As more carbon is released from dead trees, especially in the Amazon and Boreal forests, more greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere.

Do forests reduce global warming? ›

Standing forests also address the impacts of climate change. They absorb greenhouse gases, regulate water flows and protect coastal communities from extreme events and sea level rise. In addition, they provide migrating plant and animal species routes to resilient habitats.

Can forests stop global warming? ›

Forests can provide 30% of the solution to keeping global warming below 2°C. Forests remove and store carbon from the atmosphere, representing a cost-effective solution for mitigating climate change. The loss or degradation of forests compromises their ability to remove emissions.

How can we stop deforestation? ›

Save our Forests
  1. Plant a Tree where you can.
  2. Go paperless at home and in the office.
  3. Buy recycled products and then recycle them again.
  4. Buy certified wood products. ...
  5. Support the products of companies that are committed to reducing deforestation. ...
  6. Raise awareness in your circle and in your community.


1. State of the World’s Forests 2022 Report - SOFO | जानें कितने वर्षों में हमने 10% वन खो दिया ?
(BYJU'S Exam Prep: UPPSC)
2. What Happened to the World’s Forests in 2021?
(World Resources Institute)
3. वनों की गंभीर स्थिति, The State of World Forests Report 2022 जारी | Dhyeya IAS
(Dhyeya IAS)
4. State of the World's Forests 2022: Green Recovery, Building Inclusive & Sustainable Green Economies
(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
5. State of Europe’s Forests 2020
6. A picture of the world’s forests: The Global Forest Resources Assessment 2020
(Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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